A to Z

De-mystifying the terms used by antique dealers, auctioneers and specialists.
There are 8 entries in this glossary.
Search for glossary terms (regular expression allowed)
Term Main definition
Wrought Iron
The term ‘wrought iron’ tends to be used for all ancient iron. However, before the introduction of the indirect process, such use is a tautology in that all iron was wrought (wrought means forged). Also the mechanical properties of bloomery iron and wrought iron are different in that bloomery iron tends to contain variable but higher amounts of carbon than refined cast iron. Whereas, wrought iron tends to have a much higher volume of slag inclusions. Therefore, the term wrought iron should be restricted to forged refined cast iron. 
A problematic term. Before the introduction of cast steel and iron, all iron alloys had to be forged into shape, therefore the use of the term is tautological when applied to the products of the direct or bloomery process. The term only came into use with the development of the finery and the related succeeding methods of refining cast iron, therefore, it would be best if the use of term was confined to post-medieval refined cast iron.
Wrought iron has been used since the Middle Ages, and has a lower carbon content than pig iron, which makes it more malleable. It was popular with late 1800's and early 1900's designers. It is easily forged and welded, so perfect for large scale items. Because it rusts slowly, it is suitable for outdoors use.
Characteristics - puddled wrought iron - high slag content, low carbon content, fibrous nature due to rolling.
Simply meaning forged - shaped by hammering, or more recently, by pressing or stamping.
Wired Glass
Flat rolled glass reinforced with wire mesh and used especially for glass doors and roofing to prevent objects from smashing through the glass and also to hold pieces of broken glass together. By holding the glass together, it can also protect against break-in and the spreading of fire. Wired glass is produced by continuously feeding wire mesh from a roller into the molten glass ribbon just before it undergoes cooling.
White Metal
Can apply to any metal except gold and copper but usually restricted to metals with a relatively low melting temperature.
A stone used for sharpening metal edge-tools. 

Joining components involving fusion of the parent metal and usually the addition of a fillet of molten metal at the joint.

Joining two or more pieces of material by applying heat or pressure, or both, with or without filler metal, to provide a localized union through fusion or recrystallization across the interface. If a filler is used it is of similar metal type as the pieces to be joined with a similar melting point, unlike a solder joint. 
Changes on the surface of glass caused by chemical reaction with the environment. Weathering usually involves the leaching of alkali from the glass by water, leaving behind siliceous weathering products that are often laminar.